Category: Corporate & Occupational Medicine

What is an anaphylactic reaction?

Anaphylactic Reaction

What is an anaphylactic reaction?Anaphylactic Reaction

Anaphylactic reactions are symptoms due to severe allergies, which cause serious and sudden illness that may result in death. They occur due to an overreaction of the immune system to certain substances or triggers, which are normally otherwise harmless.

Some common triggers include:

  • Peanuts, fish, milk eggs and other food triggers
  • Bee and wasp stings, ant bites and other insect bites and stings
  • Medicines such as penicillin and aspirin and other medications

On some occasions, a person’s trigger may not be identified.

What are the signs of an anaphylactic reaction?

Anaphylaxis is usually rapid, occurring between 20 minutes to 2 hours after being exposed to the trigger. The signs may be subtle at first but then can become more severe.

Signs of an anaphylactic reaction can include any of the following:

  • Swelling of the tongue and throat
  • Ongoing cough and wheezing
  • Difficulty breathing which can manifest in loud breathing
  • Dizziness or collapse
  • Abdominal pain or vomiting
  • In young children, pallor, lethargy

Treatment for anaphylactic reactions

Anaphylactic reactions are serious medical emergencies. Emergency treatment can be followed using the instructions on individual ASCIA Action Plan for Anaphylaxis or First Aid Anaphylaxis Plan.

  1. Lay the person flat – do NOT allow them to stand or walk
  2. Give adrenaline injector (EpiPen® or AnaPen®)
  3. Phone ambulance – 000
  4. Phone family/emergency contact
  5. Further adrenaline may be given if there is no response after 5 minutes
  6. Transfer the person to the hospital for at least 4 hours of observation from the time of the last dose of adrenaline

The adrenaline (epinephrine) autoinjector (EpiPen® or AnaPen®) should be given first. This includes people with asthma or breathing difficulty, even if no skin signs are present.

Conduct CPR at any time if the person is not responding and not breathing normally.

Why is adrenaline (epinephrine) used to treat anaphylactic shock?

Adrenaline acts quickly on neurons to cause various systemic mechanisms for reducing the symptoms of anaphylactic shock. Depending on the reaction, it can resolve the condition rather quickly as well. If this is no the case then  the patient would require some form of Acute Medical Care and careful observation and follow-up treatment for a full recovery.

only Some of these include:

  • Causing throat and lungs to relax allowing for breathing
  • Increasing blood pressure and blood flow around the body
  • Decreasing inflammation of the skin, and reducing redness, swelling and pain

How to prevent of anaphylactic reactions

The best way to prevent anaphylactic shock is to avoid known triggers. It is also important to tell the people around you about your allergy, including when eating out for food allergies or at the workplace. Your doctor may also refer you to an allergy specialist for allergy testing. In some cases, desensitisation to the identified allergen may be possible.

Where to get help


Improving Your Sleep Can Improve Your Mental Health

Improving Your Sleep Can Improve Your Mental Health

Improving Your Sleep Can Improve Your Mental HealthSleep difficulties are a feature of nearly every mental health difficulty, including depression, anxiety, trauma, substance use issues, bipolar disorder and psychosis or schizophrenia. Take depression for example. Up to 90% of individuals with depression have sleep difficulties, and two out of every three have significant enough sleep problems to also have a diagnosis of chronic insomnia. 

Worse still, insomnia does not tend to go away on its own without appropriate treatment. This is because once people start to sleep poorly, they tend to develop ways of thinking and behaving around sleep that make their problems worse over the long run and all are searching for the perfect doctor to cure them. The main reason why Muse for rehab is preferred among others is that not only do they have the best team of doctors but also they ensure that every patient doesn’t feel different in that environment and will bring the family vibe around them, making them feel like they are at home.

Fortunately, there is a treatment out there that can improve your sleep. It’s called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). It directly targets these unhelpful thoughts and behaviours around sleep, and is the most recommended treatment for insomnia by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 

CBT-I is an effective treatment for insomnia. Research findings show it to be similar to sleeping pills at improving sleep in the short-term, and much more effective than sleeping pills at improving sleep in the long-term.

Sleeping pills are not recommended for use beyond 2-4 weeks at a time, because they stop working as well after a while and people may need to take bigger doses over time to get the same effects. Sometimes doctors prescribe them more because they think they will work faster for patients, but even one session of CBT-I has been shown to make a significant difference to one’s sleep at night.

Research shows that CBT-I consistently reduces the time taken to get to sleep, decreases the amount of time spent awake during the night, and improves sleep quality and efficiency, with improvements persisting after treatment finishes. CBT-I can also improve your mood, anxiety, stress and fatigue, so if you are struggling with your mental health, improving your sleep can make a difference to your overall level of functioning and wellbeing. Check here for treatment options.

If you would like to receive a referral for CBT-I treatment, please talk to your GP today.

Dr Damon Ashworth
Clinical Psychologist
Improving Your Sleep Can Improve Your Mental Health

Southgate Medical Centre

Telehealth FAQ’s

Southgate Medical Telehealth

What is Telehealth?

Telehealth refers to the facility to have video consultations instead of face to face consultations. This means that you can have an appointment with your doctor from the convenience of your home or office, saving travelling time and time spent waiting in the clinic. This service also enables those isolating at home due to the Covid 19 crisis to still be able to access medical services.

Is Telehealth suitable for all medical problems?

Perhaps 70% of all problems can be managed just by listening and providing advice, and therefore are suitable for Telehealth consultations. These consultations are also  very useful for providing prescriptions, referrals and certificates.

However there are still many situations where we still also need to perform an examination e.g placing the stethoscope on your chest to listen to the heart or lungs, pressing a hand on the abdomen or looking in the ears with the otoscope.

If during the telehealth consultation we find that an examination is still required, we will make arrangements for you to come in to the clinic for further assessment. We will ensure that your subsequent face to face visit in the clinic is bulk billed so that you’re not out of pocket for that extra attendance.

What equipment do I need to have a Telehealth consultation?

Video consultations will require a webcam and microphone on your computer.

Alternatively, you can also use an iPad, tablet like a تابلت هواوي, or smartphone after downloading the appropriate app.

We use a secure platform called Coviu which provides the highest level of security and privacy for the consultation.

In instances where a video call is not possible or drops out, an audio call using your phone can be used.

What is the cost?

The fee for a standard Telehealth consultation is similar to our normal face to face consultation, which is $91.00. The Medicare rebate for the consultation is $38.20. Therefore, it’s best to get a plan for the medicare advantage.

However, we will bulk bill the consultation for certain groups. These include:

  • Concession card holders
  • Patients on Jobkeeper supplements during the Covid 19 crisis
  • Patients over the age of 70
  • Patients under the age of 16
  • Pregnant women
  • Parents of infants under the age of 12 months
  • Patients who are immunocompromised or are being treated for a chronic medical condition e.g diabetes
  • Patients who identify as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent  and are over 50 years of age
  • Patients who are required to self isolate or remain in quarantine during the Covid 19 crisis

Southbank Medical Centre
Doctor Melbourne

Common Eye Problems

Common Eye Problems

Twitching Eyes or Blepharospasm; Eye ‘Floaters’; Myopia (shortsightedness); Astigmatism; Watery Eyes

Common Eye Problems

Your common eyesight is one of the most valuable assets as 80% of what we perceive come through our sense of sight. In fact, a greater part of the brain is dedicated to vision than to all the other four senses combined. Most of us tend to take good eye health for granted, until the time we face a serious eye problem. Many eye problems have no early symptoms; you may not feel any pain or notice loss of vision until the issue has become quite advanced. The best way to avoid all such eye complications is through regular professional eye examinations. So what are some common issues affecting the eyes

Twitching Eyes |Common Eye Problems

Eye twitching medically referred to as Blepharospasm is an involuntary, abnormal blinking of the eyelid. This involuntary spasm of the eyelid muscles may happen in one or both eyelids and is rarely uncomfortable, but it can be irritating. They are very common and often last for a few seconds and often go away on their own, but if they last for more than 2 weeks, it is best to consult an ophthalmologist. Although anyone can experience eye-twitching at any time, it is fairly common in middle-aged people and elderly women.


Eye twitching or spasm of eyelid muscles can be attributed to the electrical activity in the brain that causes the nerve cells to flash signals to the eyelid muscles. There are no visible external or internal stimuli that cause eye twitching. Other conditions which may increase the likelihood of eye twitching include:

  • irritation of the eye or eyelids
  • fatigue
  • dry eyes
  • stress
  • excessive caffeine intake
  • excessive alcohol intake
  • disrupted sleep patterns
  • bright light
  • high winds


Mild cases of eye twitching do not require any medical treatment, getting some rest, minimizing caffeine and alcohol intake, and reducing stress can help relieve symptoms. However, more chronic forms of this condition may require any of the following medical treatments:

  • Medications – your GP may advise you to use certain medicines to treat the eye twitching problem. However, these medications do not give the same results to everyone and tend to only mask the symptoms for a short period of time. So consider Quigley Eye Specialists and visit them to get permanent cure for your eye problem.
  • Facial Injections – for severe cases, your GP may use facial injections such as Botulinum toxin to help paralyze the muscles that cause this eye twitching. In most cases, the eyelid muscle contractions stop immediately.
  • Surgery – for patients who do not respond to the other forms of treatment, laser eye surgery may be the last option. The surgeon removes the muscles around the eyelid or part of the nerve in order to lessen the severity of the spasms.

Eye “Floaters” |Common Eye Problems

As the name suggests, the eye “floaters” are small spots, specks, strands, cobwebs, or lines that aimlessly drift through your field of vision. They are more prominent when you look at light-colored backgrounds such as a white wall or blue sky. They move as you move your eyes and usually disappear when you try to look at them directly. They may appear in different shapes and sizes and in most cases they are normal and harmless. Although anyone can experience eye floaters at any time, they are usually experienced by middle-aged people.


It is generally agreed that eye floaters are caused by an irregularity in the jelly-like fluid “vitreous humour” that makes the bulk of the eye. As we grow older, this jelly-like fluid becomes more watery with tiny clumps of protein floating through it. These tiny clumps of protein cast a shadow onto the retina as soon as bright light enters the eye; this is what we see as small spots, specks, strands, cobwebs, or lines floating through our field of vision.

Besides abnormalities in the vitreous humour, eye floaters can be caused as a result from other diseases and conditions, such as:

  • inflammation in the back of the eye
  • bleeding in the eye
  • infection in the eye
  • torn retina
  • eye surgery
  • injury
  • eye medications


Witnessing something floating around your field of vision may at first seem like a matter of concern, but floaters are very common and usually harmless. You can easily get remedy for this on Under very rare cases they require any medical treatment as they usually go away on their own with the passage of time. The best way to deal with floaters is to ignore them, however, if they start to interfere with your vision or create other complications, you should seek medical advice. Your eye doctor, after carrying out eye health exams, may consider any of the following treatment options:

  • Laser Therapy for Eye Floaters – laser therapy is used to either disrupt the floaters or break them up in tiny pieces so they are less noticeable. Although not widely used, laser therapy for floaters is a relatively new treatment approach and is in the experimental phase. People have reported varying results of this therapy, some witness improvement after the procedure, while others see no or little difference.
  • Surgery for Eye Floaters – a small surgery (vitrectomy) may be performed by a surgeon to remove the vitreous fluid and replace it with a solution. If the surgery is not performed well, it can create complications and can also give rise to new floaters. Most of the surgeons, therefore do not recommend a surgery for eye floaters unless the floaters seriously interfere with your daily life and vision.

Myopia |Common Eye Problems

Myopia, commonly known as “shortsightedness” or “nearsightedness” is a refractive error of the eye in which the eye fails to focus clearly on distant objects. People who suffer from this eye focusing disorder are unable to see distant objects clearly but often can see reasonably clear at short distances. It is generally categorized as an eye-focusing disorder, rather than a disease.

Myopia is a fairly common eye-focusing disorder and usually begins in childhood. It is estimated that by 2050, almost half of the global population will be affected by this disorder.


Myopia usually occurs when the eyes grow slightly too long from front to back. As a result of this deformity, the light does not focus on the retina (the light-sensitive tissue), instead, an image is created in front of the retina, resulting in blurred vision. Scientists are still unclear as to why this deformity of the eye happens, they often link it to heredity or environmental factors such as poor diet, poor posture, poor light, excessive reading, and lack of exposure to natural sunlight.


Despite so many advances in the field of medicine, no drug or treatment for myopia has been discovered. Recent research suggests that some drugs might slow the progression of myopia. A number of treatments, however, are available to correct myopia symptoms all of which focus on making the light rays fall on the retina to make a clearer image of the distant object.

  • Corrective lenses – such as glasses or contact lenses
  • Laser eye surgery – laser eye surgery is performed to make the necessary corrections to the shape of the eye. Laser eye surgery is however not advisable for children since their eyes are still developing.
  • Artificial lens implants – the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens on a permanent basis to help the eyes focus correctly. You can look into dailies contact lenses for temporary lenses.

Astigmatism |Common Eye Problems

Like myopia (nearsightedness/shortsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism is a refractive error/disorder of the eyes and not a disease. In astigmatism, the light entering the eye fails to focus on the retina, resulting in distorted or blurred vision. This refractive error occurs because of an irregularly shaped lens (lenticular astigmatism) inside the eye or irregularly shaped cornea (corneal astigmatism). In a normal eye, the cornea and the lens are curved like a basketball with an equal degree of roundness in all areas; this makes the light bend evenly to give a clear view. An eye with astigmatism, however, has a lens and cornea that is curved more like a football (egg-shaped), with one meridian being slightly more curved than the other, this makes the light bend more in one direction than the other resulting in blurred or distorted vision.


The exact cause of astigmatism (deformity) of the cornea or lens of the eyes is still not known, but scientists consider genetics to be a big factor. Astigmatism is often present at birth; however, there have also been instances of astigmatism developing in later part of life.


Like myopia and hyperopia, most cases of astigmatism can be effectively corrected with eyeglasses similar to tortoise glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. If astigmatism is mild, your doctor may not suggest any treatment. The two most common treatment options for normal astigmatism are:

  • Corrective lenses – such as glasses or contact lenses
  • Refractive Surgery – with the help of laser light, the shape of the cornea or lens is changed.

Watery Eyes |Common Eye Problems

Tears are very important for the health and wellbeing of your eyes. We generally associate tears with emotions or onions. However, if you have tears in your eyes for no reason, an eye condition may be the reason. The good news is that most of these eye conditions can be effectively treated with over-the-counter medicines.

Epiphora or excessive abnormal tearing is a condition in which the eye/s make more tears than they can effectively drain making the eye/s wet for a prolonged period of time. While not necessarily harmful, watery eyes can be very frustrating and embarrassing at the time and can even cause vision problems.

The most common causes of watery eyes (Epiphora) are:

  • Excessive productions of tears – irritation or inflammation of the surface of the eye are the two reasons which can cause the eye to produce more tears to rinse the irritant away.
  • Blockage of the tear ducts – some people are born with blocked tear ducts, while others may develop it later in life as a result of narrowing of ducts because of swelling or inflammation or displacement of drainage openings (puncta).
  • dry eyes
  • pink eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • keratitis – infection of the cornea
  • eye strain
  • allergies – such as hay fever
  • use of certain medications
  • corneal cancer
  • cut or scrape on the eye
  • ingrown eyelash


Most cases of watery eyes are not serious and will resolve on their own with the passage of time or by using certain OTC medications. However, in case of tear drainage problems, minor surgery is performed to create a new channel of drainage from the tear sac to the inside of the nose. In case, the drainage channels are narrowed and not entirely blocked, the surgeon may use a probe to make them wider.

Southbank Medical Centre
Common Eye Problems
Doctor Melbourne

What Is Hypertension?
How Is It Diagnosed & How Can It Be Treated?

Medical Appointments Melbourne

what is hypertensionSo what is hypertension? Our body requires a constant supply of fresh oxygenated blood to perform daily activities. The heart is in charge of supplying essential nutrients and oxygenated blood to different parts of the body through a complex network of blood vessels. As the blood passes through these blood vessels, it applies pressure to the walls of the vessels; this pressure is referred to as “blood pressure”. The size and flexibility of the arteries and the volume and force of the blood are the two major factors that determine our blood pressure at any given time.

What is Hypertension? (High Blood Pressure?)

Hypertension, more commonly known as “high blood pressure” is a condition in which the pressure inside the arteries increases to unhealthy levels, this can happen as a result of various factors such as:

  • the walls of the arteries lose their elasticity or become narrowed,
  • too much blood in circulation, or
  • heart contractility

How is Hypertension Diagnosed | What Is Hypertension?

southbank doctorsThe most common way of diagnosing hypertension (high blood pressure) is by using a device called a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer measures the blood pressure in units called millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The blood pressure is expressed by two numbers; the first number indicates the systolic pressure (the pressure in the arteries when the heart is pumping the blood), whereas the second number indicates the diastolic pressure (the pressure in the arteries while the heart is resting between beats).

The general classification of blood pressure reading is:

  • Normal/healthy blood pressure 120/80 mmHg
  • High blood pressure (stage 1) 140/90 mmHg
  • High blood pressure (stage 2) 180/110 mmHg
  • Low blood pressure 90/60 mmHg

Treatment of Hypertension | What Is Hypertension?doctor southbank

If your doctor has diagnosed you with high blood pressure, he/she may recommend you to regularly monitor your blood pressure at home in addition to regular healthcare visits. Since there is no permanent cure for hypertension, treatment for high blood pressure typically involves lifestyle changes accompanied by medications. Here is a list of some healthy lifestyle changes that can help you keep your blood pressure in the normal range and avoid health complications in the future:

  • quit smoking
  • eat heart-healthy food
  • increase physical activity
  • avoid salt
  • maintain healthy weight
  • manage stress
  • avoid alcohol

Southgate Medical Centre
Southbank Doctor
What is Hypertension

What is Coronary Heart Disease?
How to Keep My Heart Healthy

What is Coronary Heart Disease

What is Coronary Heart DiseaseDespite significant advancements in the medicine for Australians in recent decades, heart diseases and diseases of the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries remain one of the leading causes of illness, disability, and premature death. In case of disability arising out of employment you can also consult workers compensation attorney to claim compensation from the employer.Cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular affects one in six Australians and accounts for a larger portion of deaths (almost 35%) than any other disease group.

What is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)?

Coronary heart disease (CHD) also referred to as coronary artery disease (CAD) or ischaemic heart disease develops when the coronary arteries which carry blood, oxygen (it is Recommended Reading here for oxygen supply appliances) , and nutrients to the heart become damaged, narrowed, diseased, or blocked.

A healthy heart pumps approximately 3000 gallons of nutrient-rich blood through these arteries to different parts of the body every day.  In order to carry out its work, the heart needs an adequate and dependable supply of fresh nutrient-rich blood. Reduced blood flow to the heart will not only make it weak; it will also greatly compromise its ability to pump enough blood to other parts of the body. This can create all sorts of health problems which can be detrimental at times.

What Is Cholesterol?Risk Factors | What is Coronary Heart Disease

A thorough understanding of the risk factors is essential to help prevent or decrease the likelihood of developing CHD. Here are some common risk factors that contribute to the development of coronary heart disease:

  • tobacco smoking
  • obesity
  • inactivity
  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes mellitus
  • high blood cholesterol levels
  • unhealthy eating
  • excessive alcohol consumption
  • age
  • heredity

Doctor SouthbankHow to Keep Your Heart Healthy | What is Coronary Heart Disease

The best way to keep your heart healthy and minimise the chances of developing coronary heart disease is to control or reduce the risk factors. Some ways to keep your heart healthy and reduce your CHD risk are:

  • eat a heart-healthy and balanced diet
  • keep to a healthy weight
  • be more physically active
  • quit smoking
  • reduce alcohol consumption
  • keep your blood pressure under control
  • keep your diabetes under control
  • get enough quality sleep
  • manage stress

Southgate Medical Centre
Doctor Southbank
What is Coronary Heart Disease